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Young And Mature Usa

Swiss needle cast (SNC), caused by Nothophaeocryptopus gaeumannii, is an important foliage disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of the Pacific Northwest. The fungus lives endophytically within the foliage, until forming reproductive structures (pseudothecia) that plug stomates and cause carbon starvation. When pseudothecia appear on one- and two-year-old foliage, significant needle abscission can occur, which reduces productivity of the tree. While there is considerable evidence of SNC disease in coastal Douglas-fir plantations, the severity of SNC in mature and old-growth forests is poorly understood. We compared tree crowns of mature and old-growth conifer forests and nearby young forests at three locations in the Oregon Coast Range and four locations in the western Cascade Range of Oregon. We assessed disease severity for N. gaeumannii on two-year-old foliage, incidence by presence of N. gaeumannii on all foliage, foliage retention for the first four years, and foliar nitrogen of one-year-old foliage. We also compared leaf wetness at three heights in one mature and one young tree at five of the seven sites. Disease severity was greater in young forests than mature forests at all sites except for high elevation Cascade Range areas. Incidence of disease was highest for two-year-old needles in young trees and 3-5 year-old needles in mature trees, except for one coastal site. Retention of 1-4 year-old needle cohorts differed between young and mature trees, and mature trees had much larger complements of > four-year-old needles. Total foliar nitrogen (TN) concentration did not differ in needles of young and mature trees, but at some locations total N differed between canopy positions. Leaf wetness differences were not consistent between young and mature tree crowns. However, at one study site in the core epidemic area, the younger stand had longer periods of wetness in the upper crowns than a nearby old stand. Leaf wetness and foliar N were hypothesized to play a role in SNC disease severity, but they do not explain differences in adjacent young and mature trees. Although the fungus is present in old and young trees, the likelihood of disease expression and lower foliage retention appears to be greater in younger plantation trees than mature and older trees in western Oregon Douglas-fir forests.

young and mature usa


Higher fertility and more international migration have helped stave off an aging population and the country has remained younger as a result. But those trends are changing. Americans are having fewer children and the baby boom of the 1950s and 1960s has yet to be repeated. Fewer babies, coupled with longer life expectancy equals a country that ages faster.

In the United States and many other countries around the world, young adults tend to be less religious than older adults, at least by conventional measures such as whether they believe in God and how often they attend worship services.

Jewish Americans, who make up 2.4% of the U.S. adult population, are an exception: The youngest Jewish adults are just as religious as the oldest on some of these measures, according to a recent Pew Research Center survey.

More broadly, younger and older Jews participate at similar rates in a wide range of cultural and religious expressions of Jewishness. Seven-in-ten people in both age groups say they at least sometimes cook or eat traditional Jewish foods, while roughly six-in-ten in both groups say they attended a Passover Seder in the year prior to the survey.

While younger Jews are about as likely as their older counterparts to say being part of a Jewish community is an essential part of being Jewish, they are less likely than older Jews to say they feel a great deal of belonging to the Jewish people (39% vs. 56%) or that being Jewish is very important in their lives (37% vs. 46%). Younger Jews also are less likely to say that remembering the Holocaust is essential to their Jewish identity (61% vs. 84%).

These patterns may, in part, reflect higher levels of intermarriage in younger families. Only around half of Jewish adults ages 18 to 29 have two Jewish parents (49%), compared with the vast majority of Jews 65 and older (89%).

When it comes to race and ethnicity, young Jews are more diverse than their elders. Among Jews ages 18 to 29, 15% identify as Hispanic, Black, Asian, some other (non-White) race or ethnicity or multiracial, compared with just 3% among Jews who are 65 and older.

On sexual orientation, the survey finds that Jews ages 18 to 29 are less likely than Jews 65 and older to say they are straight (75% vs. 96%), and more likely to say they are gay or lesbian (7% vs. 1%) or bisexual (13% vs. 1%). But these patterns are hardly unique to Jews. The proportion of all Jewish adults who identify as straight (88%) is virtually the same as among the U.S. general population (89%), and the shares of Jews in the youngest and oldest age groups who say they are straight are on par with those shares among U.S. adults overall who say the same.

Between 2000 and 2010, the increase in cohabiting couples with children contributed to growth in the shares of both single-parent families and other nonfamily households due to the ways the Census Bureau classifies such couples by household type. However, between 2010 and 2017, the share of other nonfamily households stayed constant, and the share of single-parent families declined slightly from 10 percent to 9 percent. This decrease may be due to the drop from 18 percent to 14 percent in the share of householders under age 25 who were heading single-parent families. While declining birth rates among young women are partly responsible, this decline could also be related to more young couples with children living with their parents rather than in their own households. This explanation is supported by evidence of an increase in the number of multigenerational households, which rose from 4.4 million in 2010 to 4.6 million in 2017.

The share of young adults ages 18 to 34 who have formed an independent household has declined since 2010, while the share living with their parents has increased sharply. In 2010, less than one-third (32 percent) of young adults ages 18 to 34 were living with their parent(s), but this share jumped to 35 percent by 2017. The increase was sharpest among 25- to 29-year-olds, rising from 21 percent in 2010 to 26 percent in 2017 (see Figure 2). The share of 30- to 34-year-olds living with their parent(s) also increased by 4 percentage points across this period. In contrast, the share of young adults living in a married-couple family declined for all age groups between 2010 and 2017, with the largest drop among those ages 25 to 29.

The Great Recession and the slow economic recovery, high student debt loads, and high relative housing costs have all likely contributed to the declining shares of young adults forming or maintaining independent households since 2010. Whether these patterns persist into 2020 and beyond is an open question. If the job market and earnings continue to improve, the ability of young adults to form new households may increase. If housing costs continue to rise, however, the resulting economic burden on young adults may counteract any improvements in employment and earnings and dampen household growth rates in the future.

Third, declines in immigration have reduced population momentum by limiting the number of young adults of reproductive age who are moving to the United States and starting families. The number of women ages 25 to 44 increased by 35 percent (from 31.8 million to 42.9 million) from 1980 to 2017, but is projected to increase by only 15 percent between 2017 and 2060 (to 49.3 million). Slower growth in the number of women of reproductive age, in combination with falling fertility rates, is resulting in fewer births and children relative to the number of older adults in the population.

The future size of the older population relative to the population of children and working-age adults will depend in part on trends in immigration. The latest projections from the Census Bureau assume that net international migration (the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants) will peak at around 1.1 million per year by 2060.4 But if future immigration levels are higher than the Census Bureau projects, the number of older adults could be reduced relative to those in younger age groups.

While the solvency of Social Security benefits depends on the old-age support ratio at the national level, the provision of many programs and services for older adults occurs at the state and local levels, where low old-age support ratios may already be raising challenges. Nationwide, there were about four working-age adults (ages 18 to 64) per person age 65 or older in 2017. However, in roughly 40 percent of U.S. counties, the old-age support ratio has already fallen below three working-age adults per older adult. Many of these counties are located in areas with high proportions of retirees, such as Florida, which has been a longtime retirement magnet. But parts of Appalachia, the Northeast, and the Great Plains are aging not because older adults are moving in, but because so many young adults have moved elsewhere. Over three-fifths of counties in Maine, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and West Virginia have fewer than three working-age adults per older adult. Local areas with sustained outmigration of young adults can experience declining tax revenues, shrinking school enrollments, and declines in the availability of services, such as health care.

The most commonly recognized forms of diabetes mellitus include type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes, a polygenic disorder influenced by both genetics and environment. Now, it is understood that more than just 2 forms of diabetes exist, although hybrid forms occur much less frequently. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a type of monogenic diabetes first described as a mild and asymptomatic form of diabetes that was observed in non-obese children, adolescents, and young adults. Improvement in blood glucose levels has been observed with sulfonylurea treatment. With the expansion of genetic technology, many genes linked to MODY have been sequenced and described. This activity reviews the presentation, evaluation, and management of MODY and stresses the role of an interprofessional team approach in the care of affected patients. 041b061a72


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